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Online Painter's Glossary
The Letter "A"         M | P | D | A
ABATEMENT Reduction in amount, degree or intensity. The removal of the painted surface (the most common example is old lead-based paint) or of asbestos. Also includes encapsulation i.e. covering the painted or asbestos surface with an impermeable product, or covering the surface with heavy-duty coating.
ABRASION RESISTANCE Resistance to being worn away by friction; related more to toughness than to hardness.
ABRASIVE BLAST CLEANING Cleaning and roughening of a metal surface by the use of abrasives which are projected against a surface using compressed air, water, or centrifugal force. Also used to clean concrete surfaces by removing dirt, grime, loose concrete, efflorescence, concrete spatter, laitance, glaze, form release agent, and all other foreign matter.
ABRASIVE BLAST FINISH The purpose of abrasive and/or abrasive injected water blasting on concrete is to produce an even finished appearance or an esthetically pleasing texture on gap graded and architectural aggregate mix concrete surfaces. MPI standards for decorative architectural blast finishes are:
· SFI (Brush) - removes surface dirt and stains to give the surface a uniform appearance.
· SF2 (Light) - exposes some of the fine aggregate as well as removing surface dirt and stains. Depth of cut shall not exceed 1/16” (1.5 mm).
· SF3 (Medium) - exposes the top faces of the coarse aggregate faces near the surface. Depth of cut shall not exceed 3/16" (5 mm).
· SF4 (Heavy) - exposes more of the coarse aggregate particles near the surface. Depth of cut shall not exceed 3/8" (10 mm).
ABRASIVES Materials used for wearing away a surface by friction, such as powdered pumice, silica, sandpaper, metal shot, mineral slags, steel wool, or glass beads. Also, used for abrasive blast cleaning, e.g. sand, grit, carborundum, baking soda, rice hulls, ground walnut shells, etc.
ABSORPTION (ABSORB) A phenomenon where a substance (the absorbate) is taken into pores, voids, or interstices of a material (the absorbent); process of soaking up.
See also Adsorption.
ACCELERATED WEATHERING Man-made methods to simulate the exterior environment in an intensified manner in an effort to duplicate or reproduce actual weather conditions in order to test the exterior durability of coatings and materials. A testing procedure used by coatings and resin manufacturers to assimilate exterior exposure by the use of condensation, water spray, temperature variation and high intensity ultra violet light. The three most commonly used methods are carbon arc, xenon and fluorescent UV condensation types. ASTM publishes a number of related test methods.
ACCELERATOR Accelerators speed up chemical curing reactions. They are used with vinyl treatments and etch wash primers. See also Catalyst.
ACCENT Any deep or strong color. Also elements of color used as a design contrast.
ACCENT BASE A tinting base used to make deep or strong colors with the addition of colorants. Generally contains no opaque pigments. See Tint Base.
ACCENT COLOR Elements of color decor having characteristics quite different from the basic color scheme. Often bright, deep, or strong colors.
ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA Minimum standards for the content of programs, plans, procedures, and designs required by a specification for the performance of a contract. Acceptance Criteria is the basis for judging the responsiveness of a contractor’s program and is used as a basis for suspending work, if necessary. [SSPC]
ACCREDITATION To authorize or give credentials to; to certify as meeting certain set standards e.g. a college accredited by an association.
ACETATES Organic solvents formed by combining various alcohols with acetic acid.
ACETIC ACID A colorless, corrosive organic acid with a pungent odor. Widely used as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals. Also known as ethanoic acid or vinegar.
ACETONE A fast evaporating, highly flammable solvent that is a member of the ketone family. Used in some lacquer solvents and wood fillers.
ACID An organic or inorganic substance that contains hydrogen that disassociates when put into solution with water producing one or more hydrogen ions.
ACID ETCH A surface treatment using a dilute acid to scarify and/or neutralize (an alkali) the surface. Often, concrete and other masonry surfaces are treated with muriatic acid (a dilute form of hydrochloric acid), but metals are usually treated with phosphoric or chromic acids.
ACID NUMBER A numerical index of free acid in an oil or resin.
ACID STAIN A water-soluble stain made with an organic dye.
  ...and much more...
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